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You have entered this document one of four ways:
In order to make it easier to use this document, you should make the Netscape window as large as possible. On the X Window System, this is done by pressing the square button in the upper right hand corner of the window. Depending on the type of computer you are working on, other actions, such as dragging the button in the lower right hand corner, may be necessary. Keep experimenting until you find what works.
Now look at your page. The frame you are reading from is called the "main" frame and contains the tutorial text. The frame to the left is called the "navigator" frame and can be used to move around the document. The second window is called "WebTerm" and is a Unix terminal that can be used to try out commands as they are discussed. If you cannot find the "WebTerm" window, go back to the introduction and try selecting "In a Single Window".
It is recommended that you do NOT use the Netscape Forward and Back buttons while using this tutorial. Their use, as well as the use of the Go button may lead to confusion.
There are two ways to maneuver in this document. The navigator frame on the left contains the table of contents for the current section of the document. You can click on any link in it and go directly to that section. The main frame will frequently contain links to related information, and you can follow these links as well. Occasionally, one of these links will lead you to information contained in another set of documents. If this occurs, the information will be brought up in a separate window, and possibly in a different color. You can close this window (hold down your mouse over "File" and select "Close") and return to the tutorial when you are done with the text. If you merely "iconify" the window (on an X station "click" your mouse on the small dot near the upper right hand corner of the window), you will have to re-expand the window when you wish to read another outside link.
In addition to the ordinary links in the main frame, most documents contain several buttons. The buttons labeled "Next" and "Previous" take you to the next and previous pages respectively. "Next" and "Previous" in this case refer to the logical flow of the tutorial, like a book, in contrast to jumping between former and latter pages as occurs with a Web browser like Netscape. The "Up" button in a tutorial takes you back to the introductory section, while the "Contents" button takes you to the Table Of Contents. Notice that only the "Next" and "Contents" buttons appear in the Table Of Contents.
If you have been restraining yourself, it's time to go out now and try some of the navigation tools. Make sure to dress warmly and come back soon to this page.
To activate WebTerm, "click" your mouse on the Connect button in the WebTerm window. The WebTerm screen should then show several informational messages, and finally respond with the prompt:
If you are a registered user, you have been given a userid and password and should enter them now. To login, keep your cursor over the WebTerm frame and type your userid. Then press the return or enter key. If the computer asks you to change your password, please do as instructed (and don't take it personally). If you are not a registered user, you can try loging in with the userid guest and the password demo. (Note, the host computer limits guest accounts in what they can do, and you are expected to watch your manners.)
Note, you must type in your userid and commands exactly as they appear, the exception being that you can add additional spaces if one is there already. In particular, Unix is case sensitive and this means upper and lower case letters are considered different.
You should now have the prompt:
Go ahead and type in your password followed by the return key. Once you are logged in, you can try the commands as they are described in the text. For many commands, you will have the option of typing the command or "clicking" a button and allowing the tutorial to copy it to Webterm for you. Where user-specific information is required, you will have to type the command in yourself. Here is an example of a button
> echo 'Hello'
Note, in this and in most of the tutorials, the lefthand-most greater-than symbol > is a "prompt". It's the computer's message to you that it awaits your command. (We shall see that the same symbol is also used inside commands to redirect output.)
First type the command into Webterm or into another terminal window. This means placing your mouse in the window, activating the window (possibly by clicking in it), and typing echo 'Hello!'. Press the Return or Enter key to submit your command. Now try clicking on the button. You should get the same results either way. [With the way things are at the moment, if you click on a command button before you have logged into the computer running Webterm, the buttons are deactivated forever.] To make them work again, you will have to exit Netscape and restart the entire tutorial.
Remember, you can always type the commands into Webterm or any other window. While the buttons may eliminate some of the tedium, typing the commands may help you learn them. Whether you decide to use the buttons or not, you are strongly encouraged to experiment with the commands as soon as you hear about them. Most Unix commands can be used in a wide variety of ways, and this tutorial only discusses some of the simpler ones. There is a "Review Quiz" near the end of most sections to help you understand the material.
To get the expected results when you type in commands, you will need to copy some tutorial files to some of your personal disk space on the computer. To create the files the tutorial uses, press the button below (or type the commands):
> cd ~
> cp -ir ~www/htdocs/tutorial/unix/tutorial-directories/* .
Remember to press the return key (and don't forget the period . at the end of the command). If Unix responds with:
then you enter "n". If you enter "y", your files may be damaged.
If your goal is to "just get started on the system", you only
need to complete the basic sections identified by
|2: Accessing Your Account||Contents|